Neurolinguistic programming techniques in the development of speaking skill

Andrea Karina Carvajal-Gavilanes
Diego Santiago Andrade-Naranjo
Mónica Alexandra Salazar-Cueva
The main objective of this research was to determine the influence of Neurolinguistic Programming Techniques in the development of Speaking Skills, given that the students from 2nd BGU of the Unidad Educativa PCEI Juan León Mera could not express themselves correctly orally, using incorrect sentences with little use of vocabulary and no comprehension. It is in this context that this experimentation was proposed to be carried out with 30 students. A single group pre-test and post-test design was adopted for this study. The students' problems in the development of speaking skills were evaluated using the SPSS statistical program, applying the statistical test T student of related tests. Based on the results of the pretest, Neurolinguistic Strategies (Anchoring, Creating rapport, Mirroring, Maintaining the flow) were applied for 4 weeks during English classes. At the end of the application, a posttest was applied, and the result of the study revealed that students taught through neurolinguistics strategies had significant improvements in speaking skills.

Human and Social Science

Artículo de investigación


Neurolinguistic programming techniques in the development of speaking skill


Técnicas de programación neurolingüística en el desarrollo de la habilidad del habla


Técnicas de programação neurolinguística no desenvolvimento da habilidade de fala

Andrea Karina Carvajal-Gavilanes I                      

Diego Santiago Andrade-Naranjo II      





Mónica Alexandra Salazar-Cueva III      









*Recibido: 25 de julio 2021 *Aceptado: 30 de agosto de 2021 * Publicado: 29 de septiembre de 2021


        I.            Magíster en Ingles Pedagogía de los Idiomas Nacionales y Extranjeros, Docente Investigador EMia Englsih Academy, Ambato, Ecuador.

     II.            Magíster en docencia y Currículo para la educación superior, Doctor PhD (c), Universidad de los Andes, Docente Investigador Universidad de las Fuerzas Armadas ESPE, Latacunga, Ecuador.

   III.            Magíster en Planeamiento y Administración Educativa, Docente Investigador Universidad de las Fuerzas Armadas ESPE, Latacunga, Ecuador.







El principal objetivo de este estudio fue determinar la influencia de las Técnicas de Programación Neurolingüística en el desenvolvimiento de la Destreza Oral, ya que los estudiantes de 2nd BGU de la Unidad Educativa PCEI Juan León Mera no podían expresarse correctamente de forma oral utilizando oraciones incorrectas con poco uso de vocabulario y sin comprensión. Es en este contexto en el que se planteó esta experimentación para llevarla a cabo con 30 estudiantes. Para este estudio se adoptó un diseño de preprueba y posprueba de grupo único. Los problemas de los estudiantes en el desenvolvimiento de la destreza oral se evaluaron mediante el programa estadístico SPSS aplicando la prueba estadística T students de pruebas relacionadas. Basada  en los resultados de la preprueba se procedió a aplicar durante 4 semanas estrategias neurolingüísticas (Anchoring, Creating rapport, Mirroring, Manteining the flow) durante las horas de Ingles. Al final de la aplicación, se aplicó la posprueba, y el resultado del estudio reveló que los estudiantes enseñados a través de las estrategias neurolingüísticas  tuvieron mejoras significativas en la destreza oral del idioma inglés.

Palabras clave: Técnicas; programación; neurolingüística; habilidad del habla.



The main objective of this research was to determine the influence of Neurolinguistic Programming Techniques in the development of Speaking Skills, given that the students from 2nd BGU of the Unidad Educativa PCEI Juan León Mera could not express themselves correctly orally, using incorrect sentences with little use of vocabulary and no comprehension. It is in this context that this experimentation was proposed to be carried out with 30 students. A single group pre-test and post-test design was adopted for this study. The students' problems in the development of speaking skills were evaluated using the SPSS statistical program, applying the statistical test T student of related tests. Based on the results of the pretest, Neurolinguistic Strategies (Anchoring, Creating rapport, Mirroring, Maintaining the flow) were applied for 4 weeks during English classes. At the end of the application, a posttest was applied, and the result of the study revealed that students taught through neurolinguistics strategies had significant improvements in speaking skills.

Keywords: Neurolinguistics; programming; techniques; speaking skills




O objetivo principal deste estudo foi determinar a influência das Técnicas de Programação Neurolinguística no desenvolvimento da Habilidade Oral, uma vez que os alunos da 2ª UBG do PCEI Unidade Educacional Juan León Mera não conseguiam se expressar corretamente por via oral utilizando frases incorretas com pouco uso de vocabulário e nenhuma compreensão. É neste contexto que se propõe a realização desta experimentação com 30 alunos. Um projeto de pré-teste e pós-teste de grupo único foi adotado para este estudo. Os problemas dos alunos no desenvolvimento da destreza oral foram avaliados por meio do programa estatístico SPSS, aplicando-se o teste estatístico T alunos de testes relacionados. Com base nos resultados do pré-teste, estratégias neurolinguísticas (Anchoring, Creating rapport, Mirroring, Maintaining the flow) foram aplicadas por 4 semanas durante o horário de inglês. Ao final da aplicação, foi realizado o pós-teste, e o resultado do estudo revelou que os alunos ministrados por meio de estratégias neurolinguísticas tiveram melhoras significativas nas habilidades da língua inglesa oral.

Palavras-chave: Técnicas de programação; neurolingüística; habilidade de fala.



This research wants to establish a link between the principles of neurolinguistic programming --NLP-- techniques (activities aiming to improve the general emotional state of students aiming at facilitating learning) and the development of speaking skill (the act of conveying information verbally). The interest in this topic began by noticing the poor academic performance of students. Their low scores throughout the school year, especially in the interaction when communicating with their classmates, are evidence of the difficulty of the skill itself; which can be measured by the rubrics applied in each activity.  Improving interaction through neurolinguislic programming techniques will go a long way in helping students perform better and, at the same time, communicate with others in a second language.  It is also important to develop this research because it will make possible to put current teaching techniques at the service of students to work on their English learning issues. Such issues have become a social problem given that, by interfering on developing self-confidence, a door are not opened to improve the development of a country and thus also limits the achievement of economic progress.

One of the most common problems of medium level education is its quality, which shows deficiencies when it is not updated and is adapted to the modern needs of students. In addition, the state of constant changes that adolescents suffer is a matter where the impact of the proposed research could be revealed and shows the effectiveness with which these techniques mark the emotional and intellectual development of students. With the implementation of these techniques, parents, students, teachers and authorities will benefit by accomplishing the purpose of improving the performance and quality of education. All will be done with the aim of aiding learners in mastering the skills, abilities, attitudes and aptitudes related to the use of the English language. Finally, teachers will have the opportunity to face a new challenge consisting of using non-traditional techniques and methods to achieve the development of critical thinking and meaningful learning in students.



This research used quantitative research to analyze the findings. Apuke, 2017 affirms that "Quantitative research involves the collection of data so that the information can be quantified and subjected to statistical treatment in order to support or refute claims of alternative knowledge" Therefore, the researcher used statistical methods to analyze the initial  (pre-test) and final (post-test) results.

This study is non-experimental correlational. For this reason, this type of procedure is taken when the subjects to be investigated cannot be randomly assigned. Correlational research is considered non-experimental because it focuses on the statistical relationship between two variables but does not include the manipulation of an independent variable. More specifically, in correlational research, the researcher measures two variables with little or no attempt to control for extraneous variables and then assess the relationship between them Jhangiani et al., 1994.

There is a 2th BGU course in the institution. Therefore, no type of randomness can be used between the subjects to be investigated. Sections already established will be taken, the non-experimental situation or called committed designs, which are satisfactorily applied in educational research. This is due to the fact that this type of environment does not allow the selection of the sample in a random way, since in the Institution it is difficult to handle randomness and in this case due to the number with which they are handled.

For the current study, the statistical T or T student test was used to determine if there is a significant difference in the pre-test and the post-test. Garth, 2008 indicates that researchers can have the same subjects to investigate by taking the same instrument at two different times to determine how stable their responses are. This to the fact that it allows to identify a variation mainly in the means of the data obtained, which identifies whether the applied study has been successful or not. However, a test to validate the applied instrument was carried out for this statistical test. Validating an instrument allows us to identify that the data have the same distribution and that when applying the test the data can be verifiable and real. For this case, the Shapiro Wilk validation test will be used, the same one that allows determining if the studied data correspond to a normal distribution in obtaining the arithmetic means, since the study sample is less than or equal to 30 individuals. Tarasinska, 2016 mentions that Shapiro Wilk test tries to reject the null hypothesis at the significance level.

The 30 students of the 2th BGU, have been considered, being the total universe used to carry out the research, the sampling formula is not carried out giving that mentioned population does not require because it is minimal. As Delİce, 2001 mentions, sampling techniques are a set of statistical techniques that study how to select a representative sample of the population, especially if it is large quantities.

The initial data was collected through a pre-test to identify the level of the students in terms of speaking skills. While a post-test was used to show the level of students at the end of the process. It should be noted that for the preparation of the instruments, an operationalization of variables was carried out, which corroborated the structure and effectiveness of the evaluations and rubric to qualify them. These data showed how the initial results changed when applying neurolinguistics strategies, which are reflected in the final results. The pre and posttest were validated through the content validity technique in order to ensure if the contents immersed in them are in accordance with what is established. For this, 3 professionals who regularly teach in English Careers and Masters acted as experts to review the relevance and validity of these instruments. As well as in the pre-test and post-test, all the professionals agreed that the test should include 3 parts, the first teacher-student inaction with 4 back-up prompts, the second student-students interaction with 3 back-up prompts and finally, a group interaction with 4 back-up prompts. The evaluation rubric will contain 4 evaluation criteria vocabulary, grammar, comprehension and interaction in which the score 4 is the highest and 1 the lowest. All this due to, determine the level of students at the beginning and at the end of the investigation. According to what was mentioned, some neurolinguistics techniques (Anchoring, Creating rapport, Mirroring, and maintaining the flow) were implemented during a 4-month period, since november 9th until December 4th, to the 2th BGU students in the English hours on Mondays and Wednesdays, which is included in the planning.

Theoretical bases

Arjualayana, Rafli and Ansoriyah (2019), conducted a research about Neurolinguistics Programming concept for teaching productive skill. This aimed to report the English teacher understands of teaching productive skills through Neuro-Linguistics Programming. This research used qualitative descriptive method, with triangulation model in doing validity and reliability data. The authors applied in this research; Planning, observation, interviews, giving questionnaire, and the last is data analysis. It focuses on the English lecturers who have taught English more than 2 years as subjects of the research. They selected 7 questions in close - ended answer (yes/no answer) are given and 5 questions in short answer interview are implemented to gain the data regarding to lecturer’s understanding in NLP concept for teaching productive skills. 23 English Lecturers both male and female were the subjects of the research. From the data analysis, the result shows that most English lecturers know the NLP approach in teaching language, and they are always brainstorming as a part of NLP concepts. Thus evidencing that the use of NLP stimulates the critical thinking of learners because they learn in a seriously but relaxed way.

Keezhatta (2019), led an investigation whose aim was exploring the feasibility of Neuro-Linguistic Programming (NLP) in English Language Teaching (ELT) by analyzing the perceptions of NLP-trained English teachers applying a qualitative method based on interviews with 20 NLP-trained English teachers of high schools in India and using a manual thematic analysis method to identify similarities in pattern while performing the analysis. For that, they used an interview with open-ended detailed questions on the innovation, role, different techniques, and benefits and limitations of NLP, while also dwelling upon the different perceptions of NLP-trained language teachers, motivations of the learners towards NLP, and the positive changes brought about by NLP in the education sector. Findings showed that NLP facilitated communication and encouraged learners of English. In other words NLP as an effective tool strengthens teacher-student relationships and promotes an interactive learning environment helping learners to acquire a second language easily.

Rustan (2019), developed a study to determine first, condition on learning creative writing at high school students in Makassar, second requirement of learning model in creative writing, third program planning and design model in ideal creative writing, fourth feasibility of model study based on creative writing in neurolinguistics programming, and finally the effectiveness of the learning model based on creative writing in neurolinguistics programming. The researcher used a learning model and the data was obtained by observation, interviews, questionnaires, expert assessment, and test results The results of data analysis show that (1) the objective condition has various problems in learning to write short stories, (2) analysis of objectives has various needs, deficiencies, and desire of students and teachers in developing creative writing based on learning model in neurolinguistics programming, (3) learning model covers focus, syntax, social system, the principle of reaction, means of support, and the impact of learning, (4) eligibility models by experts produces valid result, a trial one-to-one has practical result, a small group trial, and large group trial obtain enforceability of the model in good criteria, and (5) model-based learning creative writing in neurolinguistics programming is proved to be effective in improving skill of high school students to write short stories.

Caballero and Rosado (2018), reported a paper were Neuro linguistic Programming (NLP) is a perspective integrating neurology, language and programming which are key for processing information and for responding to learners’ styles with the potential to help EFL teachers address this pronunciation issue, so they chose 43 students two groups taught using standard pronunciation techniques and two using NLP techniques preceded by oral tasks in which they were encouraged to pronounce regular verbs in the past. Data collected included students self-recorded pronunciation tasks, a survey to elicit students’ motivation and satisfaction. Analysis of the data showed that after the first implementation, the NLP group improved their pronunciation a 30%, the standard one improved a 10%. During the second implementation, the NLP group showed an improvement of 23.7% pronunciation accuracy in task 1 and a 24.6% in task two compared to the standard group. The findings suggest that teacher’s use of NLP techniques into their classroom instruction have a positive impact on students’ pronunciation of the past ending of regular verbs, due to this it is sure that NLP helps and engages positively students to interact, pronounce, and develop the language in a correct and freeway.




The data of the current research have been processed by means of the Statistical Program SPSS Statics using descriptive statistics and the T student test for related samples. The study consisted of applying a pretest and a posttest to a group of 30 students in their English class.

The evaluation carried out on each student consisted of three parts, as well as for the “Pretest” and the “Posttest”. Each part considered analyzing the level of English in terms of speaking skills of the students. The test was tested through a rubric made up of 4 evaluation criteria: Vocabulary, Grammar, Comprehension and Interaction. Each part was weighted with a maximum score of 4 points, which when added together by the number of parts for both the Pretest and Posttest gives 48 total points respectively. In consideration of the above, the individual parts that make up each test were analyzed to determine the average and the individual statistical trend of each evaluation parameter in the students. The graphs and data processed in the program are detailed below with descriptive statistical results:

Figure 1: Pre and posttest analysis

                                                              Source: Results of pre and posttest (SPSS)

Of the 48 points expected in the pretest, an average score of 22.87 was obtained. On the other hand, in the post-test the expected score was obtained on average 40.27 in the global analysis.

Based on the data collected in the global scores, it can be identified that the data correspond to a normal and valid distribution applying the statistical test. The data verify that the students had a level below 50% of the expected score when applying the pretest, but exceeded 50% of the expected score when the posttest test was applied. This is due to the fact that the students participated actively in each of the activities used based on Neurolinguistic Strategies, for which there is evidence of an improvement in the development of oral skills, achieving a study that is feasible and verifiable.

As a final consideration, it can be said that, if a comparison were made by subtracting 52% from the average of the expected value of the previous test from 16% of the average of the expected value in the subsequent test, there would be a difference of 36%. Giving a concert that there is an increase in the level of knowledge and in the development of oral skills of the English language before and after applying the Neurolinguistic Strategies.



To play a better role, English teachers must improve and play a better role in teaching by having a better understanding of new strategies and techniques such as NLP techniques, interesting techniques to attract students' attention and interest. So that students can easily understand the material. The English teacher must bring the situation to life and involve students in activities during the teaching-learning process.

To develop better learning, students must be interested to learn English. They must actively participate in activities during class hours and also when doing their homework. Practice, especially in speaking skills, whether in English classes or at home, is very helpful in improving your pronunciation and interaction. Therefore, students will not be shy when it comes to interacting and giving an idea, they will not be afraid of making mistakes because mistakes are part of the learning process.

To achieve better relevance the results can inspire other researchers to investigate more techniques that will be used not only in the development of oral skills but in the development of other skills. Because there is no perfect research to improve the acquisition and development of a second language in students. This research report can become the cornerstone for other researchers to conduct similar research that may become the answer to problems that have not been resolved in the research. They can also reference similar research on the same topic, but can be based on a qualitative or qualitative-quantitative approach.



Neuro-linguistic programming studies how verbal and non-verbal communication affects our nervous system, and therefore, learning to direct our mind through internal communication with good language skills. Therefore, establishing Neurolinguistic Programming Techniques such as Anchoring, Creating rapport, Mirroring and Maintaining the flow, helps us to have a better control of ourselves, our emotions and our responses when expressing ourselves orally.

The use of Neuro-linguistic Programming Techniques in the development of oral skills in the English language in 2nd BGU students improved the students' ability to speak, especially in the assigned evaluation criteria (Vocabulary, Grammar, Comprehension and Interaction). The students became more active and enthusiastic in the teaching-learning process. Through these techniques the students were able to express their opinion based on their own imagination, using a greater number of vocabulary words, helping the students to produce sentences orally with a correct grammar and structure. It can be seen in the students' score. The improvement was identified by Teacher-student, Student-student and group performances, which demonstrated a better understanding and interaction among these activities.

The application of neuro-linguistic programming techniques during the learning process had a positive impact on the improvement of student learning outcomes. Because these techniques have the ability to develop oral dexterity better than the use of conventional or traditional methods. NLP strategies have the ability to absorb the problems they encounter, make students feel safe, especially when speaking, increase motivation to speak, and also improve performance with thoughts that run through their own brains without any stimulation.

After the implementation of the Neuro-Linguistic Programming Techniques in the development of oral skills in the 2nd BGU students, the class was more alive and active. It was observed during the teaching-learning process, when the researcher asked questions or assignments in groups that most of the students interacted with each other, some of them tried to answer the questions, although the researcher did not ask them to answer them. It looked very different before Neuro-Linguistic Programming Techniques were implemented because the classes were monotonous and passive; there was no interaction between the students and they hardly participated in the classroom activities.



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