Ciencias de la Educación
Artículo de investigación
Emotional Intelligence in the English classroom
Inteligencia Emocional en el aula de inglés
Inteligência emocional na sala de aula de inglês
*Recibido: 29 de abril de 2020 *Aceptado: 30 de mayo de 2020 * Publicado: 25 de junio de 2020
I. Magíster en Lingüística y Didáctica de la Enseñanza de Idiomas Extranjeros, Licenciado en Lingüística Aplicada al Idioma Inglés, Docente de la Escuela Superior Politécnica de Chimborazo, Riobamba, Ecuador.
La inteligencia emocional es un conjunto de habilidades que un ser humano tiene para razonar, percibir, comprender y regular sus propias emociones y de otros. El objetivo fue describir el manejo de la Inteligencia Emocional de los estudiantes matriculados en el segundo y tercer nivel de inglés de la escuela de Marketing de la ESPOCH, Ecuador, en la clase de inglés. El estudio fue una investigación no experimental de tipo transeccional-descriptivo con un enfoque cualitativo, y de modalidad socio-educativo. La población estuvo conformada por 122 estudiantes, 59 hombres y 63 mujeres. Para la recolección de información se aplicó el Test TMMS-24 y una guía de observación no participativa. La información fue compilada en una base de datos y procesada en hojas de cálculo de Excel. La información fue analizada a través de la estadística descriptiva utilizando frecuencias y porcentajes. Los resultados fueron ilustrados en gráficos con porcentajes. La calificación global de la evaluación fue ‘bajo’ (28.14%), ‘adecuado’ (55.46%) y ‘excelente’ (16.39%) según el test TMMS-24. La guía de observación señaló que el lenguaje corporal de los estudiantes transmite algunos signos de ansiedad como ‘se toca constantemente el cabello’ (72.95%), ‘estereotipias’ (58.20%), ‘bloque de pensamiento’ (55.74%) y ‘rubor facial’ (50.82%). En conclusión, los estudiantes presentan un manejo inadecuado de su Inteligencia Emocional produciendo un deficiente proceso de enseñanza-aprendizaje del inglés.
Palabras claves: Inteligencia emocional; enseñanza-aprendizaje de inglés; signos de ansiedad; lenguaje corporal.
Emotional Intelligence is a set of abilities that a human being has to reason, perceive, understand and regulate his own emotions and those of others. The objective was to describe the management of Emotional Intelligence of students enrolled in the second and third levels of English at the Marketing school of ESPOCH, Ecuador, in the English class. The study was a non-experimental research of a transectional-descriptive type with a qualitative approach, and a socio-educational modality. The population was made up of 122 students, 59 men and 63 women. For the collection of information, the TMMS-24 Test and a non-participatory observation guide were applied. The information was compiled in a database and processed in Excel spreadsheets. The information was analyzed through descriptive statistics using frequencies and percentages. The results were illustrated in graphs with percentages. The overall rating of the evaluation was ‘low’ (28.14%), ‘adequate’ (55.46%) and ‘excellent’ (16.39%) according to the TMMS-24 test. The observation guide pointed out that the students 'body language transmits some signs of anxiety such as' constantly touching their hair '(72.95%),' stereotypies '(58.20%),' thinking block '(55.74%) and' flushing facial '(50.82%). In conclusion, the students present an inadequate management of their Emotional Intelligence, producing a deficient teaching-learning process of English.
Keywords: Emotional intelligence; teaching-learning of English; signs of anxiety; body language.
Inteligência Emocional é um conjunto de habilidades que um ser humano tem para raciocinar, perceber, entender e regular suas próprias emoções e as dos outros. O objetivo foi descrever a gestão da Inteligência Emocional de alunos matriculados no segundo e terceiro níveis de inglês na escola de Marketing da ESPOCH, Equador, na aula de inglês. O estudo foi uma pesquisa não experimental do tipo transecional-descritiva, com abordagem qualitativa e modalidade socioeducativa. A população era composta por 122 estudantes, 59 homens e 63 mulheres. Para a coleta de informações, foram aplicados o Teste TMMS-24 e um guia de observação não participativo. As informações foram compiladas em um banco de dados e processadas em planilhas do Excel. As informações foram analisadas por estatística descritiva, utilizando frequências e porcentagens. Os resultados foram ilustrados em gráficos com porcentagens. A classificação geral da avaliação foi 'baixa' (28,14%), 'adequada' (55,46%) e 'excelente' (16,39%) de acordo com o teste TMMS-24. O guia de observação apontou que a linguagem corporal dos alunos transmite alguns sinais de ansiedade, como 'tocar constantemente os cabelos' (72,95%), 'estereotipias' (58,20%), 'bloco de pensamento' (55,74%) e 'rubor' facial '(50,82%). Concluindo, os alunos apresentam um gerenciamento inadequado de sua Inteligência Emocional, produzindo um processo deficiente de ensino-aprendizagem de inglês.
Palavras-chave: Inteligência emocional; ensino-aprendizagem de inglês; sinais de ansiedade; linguagem corporal.
Learning English in Ecuadorian Higher Education system have a mandatory status for getting a Bachelor’ degree and postulate to Master or PhD programs in order to answer the new technological and scientifically challenge due to the globalization. In this context, public and private universities has been teaching English as a foreign language applied different strategies in order to achieve an efficiently interaction among English language speakers. However, English teaching learning process perceives a significant resistance for students due to the learning process mostly focuses on cognitive only and less on emotional scope. Many of our students have different emotional charge, which ones could affect the academic perform owing to the managed improperly of their problems.
Constructivism and multiple intelligences theories influence the Education changes. On the one hand, Constructivism Theory postulated by Ausubel stated that Learning is acquired when learner build its own knowledge based on present or past own experiences which ones constitutes a significant learning. Furthermore, Ausubel claims that significant learning need the motivation and attitude for learning from learner beyond the relation between new and previous knowledge. On the other hand, multiple intelligences theory determine the role of the ‘emotions’ as a main factor to the holistic formation of the leaners (Adán, 2018, p. 22). Emotion is defined as the immediately reaction of the person in front of a positive or negative situation because they are generated as an answer of an internal or external event. In addition, ‘emotions’ have motivating, adaptive, informative, social, personal functions that works into the mental process, making decisions and personal welfare (Bisquerra, 2016). Therefore, the ‘emotions’ are important and essential in our life because they encourage discovering new aims, interact among others, as well as, reject and destroy bad situations.
Review of Literature
Peter Salovey and John Mayer introduced emotional Intelligence (E.I.) in the 90s and other authors analyzed it. (Chang, 2017, p. 36) defined E.I as "the ability to perceive emotions, to access and generate emotions as well as to assist thought, to understand and to know emotions, and to reflectively regulate emotions as well as to promote emotional and intellectual growth". On the other hand, (Alanoca, Programa de Inteligencia Emocional para mejorar el proceso de enseñanza-aprendizaje del idioma inglés en los estudiantes de 4to de secundaria de la unidad educativa privada Principe de Luz, 2017, p. 17) states that the E.I is “the ability to read our feelings, control our impulses to reason, stay quiet and optimistic when we are not faced with certain tests, and keep listening to the others”. Consequently, talking about E.I is when persons has got the ability to recognize their emotions and the others, as well as, the ability to manage suitably these emotions generating positives results about problems with certain actions that allows to them develop emotional information to use appropriately in everyday life.
(Gallegos, 2014, p. 5) investigated the Emotional Intelligence in English teaching-learning process in university students through of TMMS-24 Test and anxiety observation guide, which results determined that learners in English classroom during performing listening and speaking skills presented some anxiety signs due to learners have a wrong manage of their Emotional Intelligence. (Alanoca, 2019, p. 21) developed an Emotional Intelligence Program to Improve English Teaching-Learning Process to learners of the Teaching and Translation of Languages Center CETI – UMSA. The information gathering from English test and TMMS-24 test conclude that when the learners are emotional perturbed they did not think well, prolonged emotional tensions could hinder intellectual faculties, and affect learning capacity due to learners have difficulties to manage negative emotions, so their language domain is limited. Other study conducted by Alanoca (2017), an Emotional Intelligence Program to Improve English Teaching-Learning Process to learners from High School based on TMMS-24 test and English test results concluded that the suitable manage of the Emotional Intelligence improve English language skills to create intrapersonal and interpersonal relationship. Due to learners can learn language and they can develop their emotional intelligence through language expressing feeling, identifying the cause of the feeling and looking for possible solutions about them (p. 217).
Emotional Intelligence (E.I) has been gaining significant space in education scope supported in Goleman’s postulation that was based on 5 necessary elements to perform such us emotional awareness, self-control, motivation, empathy and social ability (Fernández, 2015, p. 13). The management of the Emotions and skills together affect mental and physical health, the quality of social relationships, academic and work performance (Carrillo, 2016, p. 177). Other author, (López-Fernández, 2015, p. 85) defined E.I as the affectation that a person has when it is related with different stimulus, states or situation from the environment. In addition, (García, 2018, p. 9) pointed out that E.I link up with learning in the educational scope found emotions, moods, beliefs and motivation which ones influence in how situations are perceived and how they intervene in teaching learning process.
Emotional Intelligence (E.I) should be included in teaching learning process with the aim to educate the emotional competences which ones will constitute a tool or strategy in order to learners can manage their studies requirement in university career and in foreign language learning specifically. Then, the deficiency in the management of the some abilities such as problem solving, interpersonal problems, stress management, impulse control, empathy or self-esteem constitute sources of social maladjustment. For that reason, giving strategies and emotional abilities serve up as a protector factor of antisocial behaviors, drugs, mistreatment, physical abuse and depressing environments (Fernández-Berrocal, 2008, p. 431). Consequently, Emotional Intelligence education has become in necessary task into the academic scope to the evolutional development and socioemotional from learners. Reason Why, Emotional Intelligence is considered as an adequate approach to social researches because the analysis of the limited management of the Emotional Intelligence must evaluate the environments where the university students perform, which groups are formed by people with different personalities and from different region’s environments.
Marketing School learners at ESPOCH presented anxiety behavior during listening and speaking activities. This observation encourage to propose a problem to investigate in order to determine if this behavior constitutes an obstacle to the suitable academic perform and depending of the gathering results, which ones will be corrected with the knowledge of strategies to improve the management of their Emotional Intelligence. All in all, it was the reason why English teacher from Marketing School at ESPOCH decided to perform this investigation.
l To describe the management of the Emotional Intelligence of the students enrolled in English second and third level from Marketing School at ESPOCH
l To apply the Trait Meta-Mood Scale (TMMS-24) test in the Spanish reduced version to the students after developing listening and speaking activities in the English classroom
l To identify the most frequently anxiety signs during listening and speaking activities performing in English classroom.
The design’s research was a non-experimental and descriptive cross-sectional because the gather information inclines to be wholly descriptive since the observation register is developed at unique time (Quishpe, Effects of the grade in the communicative Competence of English language, 2019b, p. 4). Applying a ‘Qualitative approach’ because the data develops detailed descriptions of situations, events, people, interactions, observed behaviors and their demonstrations. (Hernández, 2014, p. 9). Moreover, this research belong to socio-educational modality due to the education as a social phenomenon need to be investigate from scientific scope (Morales, 2016, p. 67).
The population in this study was 122 students enrolled at English subject in second (course 1-2) and third level (course 1-2) from Marketing School at ESPOCH University during the academic year 2019-2020, Riobamba, Republic of Ecuador. Out of 122 participants, 59 men and 63 women. Apart from this, a non-participatory observation guide and TMMS-24 Test were the instruments for data compilation.
First, a non-participatory observation is an instrument where the investigator is a simple passive viewer that connect the facts with the scientific theories (Sáenz, 2014, p. 207). Then, an observation guide was designed to assess the behavior characteristics of each student during the listening and speaking activities watching their body language. During the process, the students in small groups perform the activities related with listening and speaking skills, while the researcher was analyzing the students’ reactions through of the observation guide of anxiety. Naturally, teacher requested in advance to perform students’ tasks.
Second, Trait Meta-Mood Scale (TMMS-24) test is a Spanish reduced version. As it is a semantically adapted version from original version of (Salovey P. M., 1995). It maintains the three original components from original: ‘Attention’ measures the ability to feel and express feelings adequately; ‘Clarity’ measures self-understanding of the emotional states; and ‘Repair’ measures the ability to regulate the emotional states correctly but the items were reduced to half from original. Then, the scale is composed for 24 items, 8 items for each dimension, 5 Likert scales (nothing agree, something agree, quite agree, strongly agree, totally agree). Lastly, the rating scales show the index for dimension and the Emotional Intelligence index (Extrema, 2008, p. 42). Then, TMMS-24 test is a tool to assess the meta-knowledge of the emotional condition of the learners, where the items show the abilities to know their own emotions and the ability to regulate those emotions.
In this study, the testing reliability of the TMMS-24 test was developed through of the pilot test applied to 20 students and testing with the Cronbach Alpha coefficient each dimension. The results were Emotional Attention α=0,873; Emotional Clarity α=0,898; Emotional Repair α=0,885. Those coefficients determined that TMMS-24 test has a good internal consistency construct due to the index coefficient value is closed to 1, which items were homogenous. (González, 2015, p. 4). On the other hand, semantic validation was accomplished by expert judgment method, which results implicated that the test was semantically suitable to the study population. In addition, the appraisal rating were performed applying the following rating scales: ‘Attention’, ‘pay little attention’ ranges for male <21 and for female <24; ‘suitable attention’ ranges for male 22 to 32 and for female 24 to 35, and ‘too much attention’ ranges for male 33 and for female >36. ‘Clarity’, ‘low clarity’ ranges for male <25 and for female >23, ‘suitable clarity’ ranges for male 26 to 35 and for female 24 to 34, ‘excellent clarity’ ranges for male <36 and for female >35. ‘Repair’, ‘low repair’ ranges from male <23 and for female <23, ‘suitable repair’ ranges for male 24 to 35 and for female 24 to 34, ‘excellent repair’ ranges from for male >36 and for female >35. Consequently, this investigation selected TMMS-24 test to gather information because it has a scientific theoretical support related to E.I, as well as, it has the reliability and validity to the group of study in this investigation.
The gathering information was stored in a database and processes in Excel spreadsheet. Descriptive statistic was applied to analyze information with frequencies and percentages, which results were illustrated in charts with percentages. Then, the gathering information was analyzing according to the responses from study variables using the ‘triangulation’ method defined as the use of multiple sources and methods of gathering data related with the object study.
At present investigation, the independent variable is ‘Emotional Intelligence’ defined as the ability to perceive emotions, using emotions to facilitate the thinking, to understand and to regulate emotions. Moreover, as dependent variable is ‘English classroom’ defined as the English teaching-learning process to achieve an efficient communication among target language speakers.
Global results of the investigation developed in students of second level of English subject from Marketing School at ESPOCH, Riobamba, Republic of Ecuador presented two important findings. First, the self-perception of the Emotional Intelligence placed a students’ population in a proportion which ranges from 19.67% to 40.98% within of the ‘low emotional level’ in their three emotional dimensions such us ‘attention’, ‘clarity’ and ‘repair’ after listening and speaking activities. Second, the observation guide showed that the students’ body language convey some significant anxiety signs during the listening and speaking English activities which ones in descending order were ‘constantly touch your hair’, ‘stereotypy’, ‘thought blocking’ and ‘blushing face’. Thus, the study population was 122 students, 59 men and 63 women.
On the ‘Emotional Intelligence’ variable, TMMS-24 test assessed the self-perception of the emotional ability into the three emotional dimensions such us ‘attention’, ‘clarity’ and ‘repair’ of the students after developing listening and speaking activities in the English classroom. The appraisal ratings on ‘attention dimension’ determined that a third of the study population (26.98%) from Marketing School at ESPOCH University are in ‘pay little attention’ level. Those results allow inferring that the students have limited abilities to identify their own feelings and the others, as well as, their emotional states and sensations involved. Nevertheless, more than a half of the study population (54.92%) presented ‘pay suitable attention’ level. It points out that learners are able to perceive their own emotional states appropriately (see Figure 1). On the other hand, an important study population showed ‘pay too much attention’ level. It means that the students have a high self-attention in the development of this ability. Consequently, the students should improve the ability to perceive and manage their pleasant and unpleasant emotions that feeling them and the others due to the ‘low attention’ and the ‘too much attention’ are negative factors into educational development of the emotions. Naturally, those results were related with the results from study performed in the Language Center from School of Health Science at UNACH University by Gallegos and their helpers about Emotional Intelligence in English teaching learning process such us ‘little attention’ 18%, ‘suitable attention’ 49% and ‘too much attention’ 16%. As well as, the results from study performed in the Principe Azul High School, La Paz, Bolivia about Emotional Intelligence in English teaching learning process presented in general ‘suitable attention’ 56%, ‘low attention’ 40%, and ‘high attention’ 4%.
Figure 1. Emotional Attention Dimension.
Resource: TMMS-24 Test from Marketing Students at ESPOCH
Made by: Luis Quishpe - Researcher
On the ‘Clarity’ dimension, the quarter of the population (42.86%) was at the ‘low clarity’ level. Those results concluded that the students should improve their emotional comprehension because they do not know the causes and consequences that produce certain moods. Although, the results indicated that half of the study group had a ‘suitable clarity’ (50.79%). Those results allow predicting that the students know the causes and consequences of their moods and others too. On the other hand, a few students from study population (6.35%) denoted an ‘excellent clarity’ (see Figure 2). The results reflected that the students know how to manage their temperament, owing to the fact that, they know the causes that they will generate if they act wrong. Moreover, those results are related with the results showed in the development investigation Gallegos et al. (2014, p 5) at UNACH University where ‘suitable clarity’ level was in general (55.42%), significant students were located in ‘low clarity’ level (19.27%) and ‘excellent clarity’ (21%). As well as, the investigation development by Alanoca et al. (2019, p. 168) in the Translation Center CETI at UMSA University from Bolivia reported that the majority of students had ‘suitable clarity’ (68%), ‘low clarity’ (32%) and (0%) to ‘excellent clarity’.
Figure 2. Emotional Clarity Dimension
Resource: TMMS-24 Test from Marketing Students at ESPOCH
Made by: Luis Quishpe - Researcher
On ‘repair dimension’, the majority of study population (50.79%) reflected having a ‘suitable repair’ level, it denoted that students have the ability to control their own emotional states correctly and the others in order to stop negative emotions and improve pleasant emotions (see Figure 3). However, it is very important to emphasize that the other numbers of students divided their self-perception in almost half between ‘low repair’ and ‘excellent repair’ level. Despite the fact that, a minority of the study population (23.81%) showed having a ‘low repair’ level. It means that students should improve their abilities to control the emotional states appropriately due to they have limited ability to be open and to manage negative and positive emotions. Alternatively, another significant group of students (25.40%) validated the self-perception into ‘excellent repair’ level. Therefore, students are be able to manage their moods and the others efficiently to adapt to the environment around them. Consequently, similarities results were evidence in the studies performer at UNACH University and San Andres University from Bolivia where the majority of participants were placed in ‘suitable repair’ level and a representative of them were placed into ‘excellent repair’ level.
Figure 3. Emotional Repair Dimension
Resource: TMMS-24 Test from Marketing Students at ESPOCH
Made by: Luis Quishpe - Researcher
The ‘observation guide’ based on students’ body language verified the existence of some ‘anxiety signs’ during listening and speaking activities performing in English classroom (see Figure 4). Therefore, both high and low ‘anxiety indicators’ frequency were identified. High frequency ‘anxiety indicators’ included ‘constantly touch your hair’ (72.95%), stereotypy (58.20%), thought blocking (55.74%) and blushing face (50.82%). Conversely, low frequency ‘anxiety indicators’ included ‘dysphemia’ (29.51 %), ‘sweating’ (27.05%), ‘put objects in your mouth’ (18.85%), ‘agitation’ (13.93%), ‘nail biting’ (9.84%) and ‘choking sensation’ (6.56%). Finally, the results support the hypothesis that the students have a limited management of their own Emotional Intelligence due to the anxiety is an emotional process that involves an emotional respond to this appreciation characterized by annoying or unpleasant feelings and physiological symptoms. Equivalent anxiety sings were referred in the study performed at UNACH University which ‘anxiety indicators’ more relevant were ‘stereotypy’ 72%, ‘though interception’ 38.55% and ‘blushing face’ 25.30% (Gallegos et al., 2014, p.5). Other research performed by Carrillo and Condo about Emotional Intelligence and anxiety in future teachers at High Education from Lima determined that the participants presented a ‘state anxiety’ with the levels like ‘low 49%’, ‘very low 39%’, ‘average 10%’ and ‘high 2%’. ‘Trait anxiety’ with levels ‘low 52%’, ‘very low 23%’, ‘average 17%’ and ‘high 2%’ (Carrillo & Condo et al., 2016, p. 184).
Figure 4. Anxiety Indicators
Resource: Observational Guide from Marketing Students at ESPOCH
Made by: Luis Quishpe – Researcher
From the results stated for TMM-24 test and observation guide, this study determined the existence of two main findings in English Classroom. First, the students of the second and third level enrolled in English subject from Marketing School at ESPOCH University during the academic year 2019-2020 presented difficulties to manage their Emotional Intelligence after listening and speaking activities. Second, the students’ behavior conveyed some anxiety sings evidencing in their body language while they were performing listening and speaking activities.
The general index of the Emotional Intelligence from TMMS-24 Test determined that the majority of the study population (55.46%) has a ‘suitable emotional level’ on attention, clarity and repair dimension. Therefore, the results determined that students are be able to perceive their own emotional states adequately, understand my emotional states correctly, and regulate the negative emotional states appropriately. Thus, the results are in consentient with the reports made by other authors in similar studies such us Swinkles & Giuliano, Fernández-Berrocal, Gross & John (as cited in Extremera & Fernández-Berrocal et al., 2008) and Alanoca et al., (2019) who determined that the students in this level knows their feelings at the moment of expressing them creating an empathy with themselves.
Despite the fact that the three dimensions of the Emotional Intelligence in this study are in average level. A very significant study population (28.14%) were located into ‘low emotional level’, who presents difficulties to understand their own emotions. As well as, a little number of participants in this study (16.39%) were identified into ‘too much/excellent emotional level’, who presents difficulties in the ability to regulate the emotional negative states due to the high self-perception level. In this case, both extremes are negative into the emotional learning education. Similar results were evidenced in studies performed by (Gohm, 2000), they concluded that the students who ‘pays little attention’ to their emotions consider to their emotional states are irrelevant, thus they do not use that information to regulate their mood state, hence the students could experiment a greater predisposition to develop anxiety disorder. Conversely, (Pérez-Dueñas, 2006) concluded that the students who ‘pays too much attention’ report grater anxiety and depressive symptoms. Reason why, the students have to improve their ability to observe and think about their own emotions and feelings, to value, and to examine their emotional states as well as they have to focus on and maximize the emotional experience.
At the same time, a quarter of the study population (42.86%) presented a ‘low emotional clarity’ due to the students confuse their emotions, which emotions could be unpredictable, as well as students could often get difficult reactions during emotional situations. It means that the students have to improve their ability to identify, distinguish and describe their emotions that they experience because the ‘clarity dimension’ is related with high level of intrapersonal emotional understanding and strongly relation with ‘attention dimension’. In contrast to ‘low clarity’ level, a very small number of the study population (6.35%) showed an ‘excellent repair’, who has the enough ability to understand their emotions as well as their emotional knowledge for transmitting from one emotional state to another. Equivalent results were reported by the studies carried out by (Palmer, 2002), (Salovey P. S., 2002) and (Leible, 2004), who concluded that ‘high scores in clarity emotions’ are associated with general health such us less anxiety, less depression, lower tendency to perform personality disorders and minor tendency to suppress thoughts, in clear opposition with ‘low emotional clarity’ level.
Finally, on ‘repair dimension’ the study population is divided in almost the same proportions between ‘low repair’ level (23.81%) and ‘excellent repair’ (25.40%). ‘Repair dimension’ involves the management of the students’ intrapersonal world as well as interpersonal world of them. ‘Low repair’ level expresses that the students have significant limitations to adjust consciously their emotions for emotional and intellectual growth.
However, ‘excellent repair’ described that the students have the ability to reflect on emotions and determine the usefulness of their information appropriately. To sum up, the results are related closely to studies performed by (Ben-Ze'ev, 2002), who concluded that the student with ‘low repair’ level should improve their ability to assess the individual active intents for leading negative emotions toward a more positive direction steadily across the time. Nonetheless, students with ‘high repair level’ have more likely to regulate their emotions.
For the above-mentioned reasons allow inferring that Emotional Intelligence have implications in Teaching-Learning process of English language since pedagogy and didactic scope. The results in this investigation support this hypothesis owing to this study identified high frequency of some anxiety indicators in English classroom while the students were performing listening and speaking skills such us ‘constantly touch your hair’ (72.95%), stereotypy (58.20%), thought blocking (55.74%) and blushing face (50.82%). On balance, the results determined that the students have a mishandling of their Emotional Intelligence due to the students’ body language expressing some anxiety signs for the limited ability achievement by the students to interact among them using English language. Thus, anxiety signs product of the limited ability to manage their own emotions constitutes a barrier for target language learning and teachers as students have to face during the English teaching learning process. Those results are relating whit the study performed by Gallegos et al. (2014), who determined that the insecurity of the students in English learning activities performing leads to a deficient development of the teaching learning process. (Marquez, 2006) study showed that there is a positive link between Emotional Intelligence and the academic and social development of adolescents. A study developed by (Zarafshan, 2012) concluded that metacognitive, affective and social learning strategies, in addition to emotional intelligence, contributed positively to English language proficiency. Finally, (Pishghadam, 2009) determined that a higher level of Emotional Intelligence was linked to higher scores in language skills, which significantly depend on emotional intelligence abilities: reading (depends on stress management, adaptability and general mood), listening (linked to interpersonal skills and stress management), speaking (linked to interpersonal and intrapersonal skills), as well as writing (connected to adaptability and stress management).
Consequently, since of point of view of the Constructivism theory into the pedagogy and didactic scopes the significant learning on foreign language is carried out by the Communicative approach which communicative method focuses on the use of the language in real life situations. Therefore, significant learning can be acquired for discovering or reception, so the reception is performed in universities learners. As well as, Ausubel distinguishes three types of significant learning for languages such us linguistics, experiential and domain (Chiluiza, 2017, p. 135). Therefore, significant learning occurs when learner is present and the emotional behavior is analyzing face listening or speaking skills in English language.
On the other hand, anxiety is considered as a negative emotion and it have negative effects in foreign language learning process. It can occur due to the fear or the apprehension that a student suffers when carrying out an activity in a foreign language, being a process that can be transitory and that decreases over time, or can become permanent and become generalized (Falero, 2016, p. 22). Then, language anxiety associated with limited Emotional Intelligence skills in teaching learning process constitutes a negative variable in new language learning for two reasons: first, learners don not get a foreign language domain; second, they private of means of communication. In fact, oral expression and oral comprehension are the linguistic skills more affected, which difficulties can produce anxiety in students learning. This discussion is related with the study performed by (Quishpe, 2019a, p. 41), who maintained that learning a foreign language need to perform new communicative habits in order to exchange ideas, opinions relaxed to avoid anxiety.
On the whole, the emotional competences can be learning and Emotional Intelligence can be more powerful that the cognitive intelligence in general. In addition, knowing the elements of the Emotional Intelligence will allow to the students learning to manage and use them in educational purposes. Indeed, Emotional Intelligence could help the students take over of their emotions during the teaching learning process in order to manage and use them to their own benefit because the core knowledge of the competence is based in cognitive, affective and procedural competences. Finally, this criteria was referring with the study performed by (Paéz, 2015, p. 269), who maintained that Emotional Intelligence is an important factor in academic and working success as well as to the life. Other study developed by (Soriano, 2017, p. 527) concluded that Emotional Intelligence is liked with English language learning because the cognitive and affective factors are conjugated in this process and their management can affect positively or negatively in learners. Finally, Alanoca et al. (2019) showed that Emotional Intelligence has a positive implication in English teaching learning process when the students knowing to control and educate their negative emotions, as well as, they improved their English language speaking because they express their feelings in target language. Conversely, wrong management of Emotional Intelligence produce negative implications in teaching learning process reflected in language anxiety.
The appraisal rating of the self-perception of Emotional Intelligence from TMMS-24 test applied to English students from Marketing School at ESPOCH University showed that a very significant percentage of the study population have difficulties in management of their emotions and the others. In spite of that, the majority percentage of the study population presented a ‘suitable attention, clarity and repair’ level of their Emotional Intelligence after listening and speaking activities. Therefore, it is necessary the suitable intervention in order to solve the mentioned conflicts.
At the same time, the observation guide determined that the body language of the study population shows different personal characteristics such us movements, fear, anxiety, and correction of gestures suggestive of insecurity for the activities performing. Reason why, this form of communication suggests the appearance of the anxiety with their more relevant indicators such us ‘constantly touch your hair’, ‘stereotypy’, ‘though interception’ and ‘blushing face’ during the listening and speaking activities. Consequently, the mismanagement of the Emotional Intelligence of the study population leads to deficient development of the English teaching-learning process.
Taking everything into account, the students from the study population need to know strategies to improve their ability to manage their Emotional Intelligence in order to get positive and beneficial results into English teaching-learning process. As well as, anxiety factors guide to the need to perform investigations to study physiological reactions in listening and speaking learning during English teaching learning process.
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